TRIPLEX is a generic hybrid model of forest growth and carbon and nitrogen dynamics, developed
based on three well-establisher process model, i.e. 3-PG (Landsberg and Waring, 1997), TREEDYN3.0
(Bossel, 1996) and CENTURY4.0 (Parton et al., 1993). The model is intended to be comprehensive
without becoming complex, and minimizes the number of input parameters required, while capturing
key processes and important interactions between the carbon and nitrogen cycles of forest
ecosystems. It is designed as a hybrid of both empirical and mechanistic components that can be
used for 1) making forest management decisions (e.g., growth and yield prediction), 2)
quantifying forest carbon budgets, and 3) assessing the effects of climate change in both the
short and long term. In addition, TRIPLEX simulates average stand characteristics rather than
those of individual trees. It is designed to develop as a generic model that can be
parameterized for even- or uneven-age coniferous and broad-leaved species at any geographical
location and for different soil and climate conditions. Modelling processes of TRIPLEX are
described in details by Peng et al. (2002).
The TRIPLEX1.0 model components are presented by class objects using an objective-oriented
programming (C++) approach (Liu et al., 2002). The model uses a monthly time step and is driven
by monthly weather data. It has been recently tested against age-dependent growth measurements
from 12 permanent sample plots (PSP) in jack pine (Pinus banskiana Lamb.) stands in northern
Ontario. Comparisons of simulated stand growth variables (e.g., tree diameter, height, and stem
density) with those observed in PSPs indicated a good agreement over 30 years. Predictions of
tree total volume and aboveground biomass were within the expected range for these plots (Peng et
The current version of TRIPLEX 1.5 has a Windows-based graphical user interfaces to allow easy
access to data files required to run the models, and rapid development of new files for
additional sites. The distribution package contains example files which will allow the user to
run current version of the model using data acquired at boreal forests in northern Ontario,
PTRIPLEX was developed at the Ontario Forest Research Institute of Ontario Ministry of Natural
Resources through collaboration with the Forestry and Forest Environment of Lakehead University.
TRIPLEX development and application are supported through grants from the following agencies:
2. Download papers about TRIPLEX here
Publication 1:Peng, C.H., J.X. Liu, Q.L. Dang, M.J. Apps and H. Jiang (2002).
TRIPLEX: A generic hybrid model for predicting forest growth and carbon
and nitrogen dynamics. Ecological Modelling, 153: 109-130
Publication 2: Liu,J.X., C.H., Peng, Q.L. Dang, M.J. Apps and H. Jiang (2002).
A component objective model strategy for reusing ecosystem models.
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 35: 17-33
3. Download TRIPLEX v1.5
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